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Related article: In the many '* rounds " I have had with this opponent, needless to say at times I have received a certain amount of " punishment," but never a fair knock-out blow. Tout vient a qui sait attendre, so perhaps some day I shall get it. Till then, however, I must have the courage of my convictions and stick to what I said in the first of my articles on the sub- ject in this Magazine. "A so- called infallible system is ipso facto an absurdity, being antago- nistic to all common sense, which has been my guide, philosopher and friend throughout this work of mine ; but, on the other hand, I fail to see why it must of necessity be beyond the powers of human ingenuity, taking for its ally this same common sense, to formulate a plan by which, more or less successfully, to oppose this eccentric Law of Chance." H. i. Haiiliitgr'.fhul, I90O.] 19 Wrestling in the Salzburg Mountains. Though practised in other dis- tricts, the province of Salzburg is the head-quarters of that form of athletics known in Austria as " rangein/* which word is equiva- lent to the middle English " wranglen " and to " wrestling " at the present day, an exercise which enjoyed great popularity in Greece two thousand years ago and more. The great arena for this pastime is the principal valley of Land Salzburg, the Salzachthal, whose upper part is called Ober Pinzgau and Unter Pinzgau. In that beautiful spot wrestling matches have been held for the last five centuries, for in a fourteenth cen- tury chronicle we find mention of the Pinzgau wrestlers. The peasantry in the neighbourhood of Zell am See, that deservedly favourite resort of summer visitors, are particularly fond of it. The school boys wrestle according to all the traditional rules; young men find in wrestling their chief amusement, and the middle-aged show the youngsters " how fields were won." This sport has, so to say, become part of the exist- ence of the Pinzgauers, and by consequence they are splendidly muscular and brawny fellows. In Salzburg two distinct forms of wrestling are known as " ran- geln." In either the object is to throw the adversary to the ground ; hut the methods differ materially. The older rule was that the one wrestler should seize the other by his belt and throw him backwards over his head, a feat that required enormous strength and skill, and which was accompanied by con- siderable danger, for the van- quished man might break his arm, leg or even his neck in his fall. The present method demands equal dexterity if less muscle, and is comparatively free from risks to limb ; serious accidents do not very often occur. The two wrestlers about to try a fall take off their coats and waistcoats and roll up their shirt sleeves, sometimes substituting thick stockings for their boots. Their boots being hobnailed are Buy Acillin unsuitable for wear in the ring, as an accidental kick might inflict serious hurt. The signal being given they rush forward, each striving to catch hold of the other. Generally they take hold with only one hand each at first, stretching the other out, dragging from side to side till the one man gives the other a chance of a favourable grip. When this occurs the two draw clo^r together, and the real wrestling commences. They seize one another's arms; but the great aim of each is to obtain a grip of his adversary's trunk, or leg, and thus throw him to the ground. Consequently they draw their bodies as far back as possible out of the reach of an inconvenient hand, while at the same time putting their heads against one another. Often the weaker man is quicker and more skilful than the stronger, and, frustrating every effort of his opponent, comes off victor. When actually thrown the bout is not yet lost, for the man is not van- quished till both his shoulders touch the ground at the same time ; therefore it sometimes hap- pens that a wrestler not only manages to rise again, but finally proves the winner. The rules, with slight modifica- tion, perhaps, have been in force for centuries. They are not written, but transmitted orally. Every lad tussles in the meadow L. H''id"t".*>""-'^ WRESTLING IN THE SALZBURG MOUNTAINS. az with those of his age, and thanks to the instruction he has received from his father, knows as well as his seniors what grips are fair, and what tricks are forbidden ; and from childhood he learns that he must neither kick, strike nor throttle. The Pinzgauers firmly believe in the old adage, ** Practice makes perfect," for they miss no opportunity of engaging in their favourite and healthful sport. When two young fellows meet in summer after work is over for the day it is not long before jackets and waistcoats are flung aside and they are wrestling with as much zeal and activity as if they had been idle all day instead of work- ing hard. The residents in each village form a sort of club, and during the season generally meet on the wrestling ground once a week. Thus each one finds oppor- tunity of measuring himself against his fellows in turn, and thus the strength and skill of each man is accurately gauged. The best wrestler is chosen as the cham- pion to represent his village at the various wrestling matches which are held in the neighbour- hood. The conservative moun- taineers have for centuries held these on the same days in each year on the same spots. The principal meetings take place on St. James's Day (July 25th) and on the third Sunday in August, On the former day the ranglers, their -friends and the spectators meet on the Hundstein, one of the Salzburg Alps, having an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet ; and on the latter the meeting comes off on the well known Schmittenhoehe, near Zell am See, a spot frequently visited by English tourists for the sake of the magnificent view it commands of the surrounding snow-clad peaks. Other meetings take place